The know-how supply technique want info on social framework and adoption procedures. An impressive improve to induce more adoption has been mentioned. New techniques, gals empowerment, self help choices, administrative bottlenecks, difficulties, problems and new vistas have been mentioned.
Awareness reasoning for small adoption, crop output constraints, conversation links, know-how use, evaluation and info believability has been reviewed. New modiums of private extension, eco-friendly agriculture, know-how gaps, have been analysed and reforms determined.
New proposals for forged sharing of know-how supply, Farmer – teaching and understanding upgradation, Farmers area universities have been postulated to maximize use of know-how on shelf. The technology of know-how by itself is in essential stage. The top-down technique of exploration organizing is not totally replaced with base-up-techniques. Even with initiation of impressive initiatives by ICAR like NIAP, the overall involvement of scientists, extension functionaries, farmers and farming technique is invisible. Thus, a overall improve in know-how technology, adoption & refinement at farmers area is proposed. A portion of adoptive & applied exploration could be undertaken on farmers area by exploration scientists. It could be participatory exploration by scientists, extension educators and farmers. The failure dangers can be covered underneath crop insurance. A Netherland model of Farmer-Scientist-participatory exploration on farmer’s area can be applied. The supply mechanism consequently can be easy, transparent and more quickly. Extension & Extension educators could be educated on area to have their functions on a huge region.
We might not ignore our challenges. Male in Agricultural sector has usually faced them and came out effective. Approximately gentleman as hunter 30,000 years back feed six million people globally. Primitive agriculture 3000 years later assisted him to feed sixty million people. Intensive agriculture 300 years back fed 600 million bellies. Currently chemical farming or industrial agriculture feeds 6000 million people. We hope our fourth paradigm shift consisting of modernization blend with sustainability shall feed twice as fed these days, furnished we move now to precision & smart agriculture as considered in these and other files (Wani, 2008 a,b,c). This could be attainable with introduction and overall facilitation of farmer empowerment. This would suggest involving farmer in experimental finding out, farmer to farmer exchanges, understanding thrust, look for for approaches, interaction. This would suggest Farmer area universities, participatory know-how advancement and overall mass involvement of exploration and educating for improvement of farming. This will want a paradian shift in Extension Science reforms. This will suggest a group supported agricultural extension technique. We want a transparent democratic, financial, understanding dissemination technique. This could maybe be termed as “Farm Organization Management Undertaking” or technique.
A improve in the direction of integrating crop, fruit, livestock, water conservation and climatic variations in our agricultural extension initiatives, missions and programmes is needed.(Wani, 2007).
Awareness Reasoning for Low adoption
Adoption of Rice know-how in farmers of Maharastra’s Ratngiri district was influenced by relatives dimension, occupation, social participation, mass media publicity, revenue and other extension contacts,. Only twelve.six% farmers from SC communities has high know-how knowledgeable ness (Mankar et al, 2004)
Adoption of a know-how requires conversation, understanding final decision building energy and threat guaranties. Education of Mushroom, assisted farm gals to generate their livelihood independently in Tamil Nadu respondents from coimbatore, Priyar districts showed gals awareness and teaching was beneficial. (Syatha & Palarisway, 2006). Mushroom teaching assisted younger gals and men to have a gainful work. (Proc. 21 EECM, SKUAST-K, 2007).
The data have been collected from one hundred farmers in Maharashtra, India, by means of individual interview working with an interview routine. It was located that medium educated farmers with medium socioeconomic position, procured info from progressive farmers. 50% of the farmers who adopted drip irrigation had medium stage of adoption of the suggested practices, twenty five% of the respondents had small stage of adoption and 19% had high stage of adoption. (Katkar & Ahive, 2006)
The influence investigation disclosed that approximately fifty five% of the cauliflower growers adopted vermi-compost in adopted villages as perfectly as in neighboring places. (Singh et al, 2005)
The study was done to establish the constraints encountered by farmers (n=a hundred and twenty) in adopting the suggested pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) output know-how in dry land farming in Sirsa District, Haryana, India. The farmers have been asked to charge the determined constraints of output as really major, major and not so major. It was located that the constraints these as high value of herbicides, fungicides and other pesticides, and absence of irrigation amenities, have been really major. (Chander et al, 2006).
Crop output awareness constraints
A study was done to assess the constraints encountered by farmers in practicing wheat output systems, and acquire feed again/ tips to reduce or eradicate the constraints. The data have been collected by administering a pre-tested questionnaire to 320 farmers from Uttar Pradesh, India in the course of 2001-02, centered on the study. The adhering to have been the constraints in implementing wheat output systems: absence of timely funding to set up inputs, absence of understanding about the new systems, availability of systems that are highly-priced and necessitating more inputs, and absence of right marketing and advertising amenities. Farmers (84%) expressed that demonstration would reduce the constraints, 79% of the farmers prompt to delay sowing of drought- and blight-resistant types of wheat, and eighty% of them favoured strengthening of cooperative amenities. (Prasad et al, 2006)
A study in J&K on maize output disclosed that 82% farmers had know-how awareness by means of radio and 62% by means of Tv. Vast majority of 70% of the maize growers had medium stage of awareness. (Lakshimikant et al 2005)
The use of Farm Lawn Manure was limited 27% farmers among the maize growers of J&K condition. The suggested practices of fertilizers was adopted by 19% (nitrogen ) 24% (Phosphorus) % two% (Potash). Underneath these situations small degrees of rainfed maize output can be improved if healthful suggested practices are employed. (Lakshamikant and Chandagri, 2005). A small stage of FYM use is the reason for small output of Saffron, rice & fruits. (Wani, 2008). Underneath 3000 front line demonstration in very last couple of year, with application of output suggestion, maize output was doubled (four.3 t/h-one Vs two.one t/h-one) (Wani 2008 d), (Nehvi, et al,2007).
Communication links with Scientists
A study was done to ascertain the conversation channels and approaches employed by scientists to create linkages with extension staff. The data have been collected from 102 scientists in four districts of Karnataka, India. It was located that just about all scientist doing the job in distinct centres employed mobile phone calls to connection with extension staff. The regularity of use depends on their requires. Professors, associate professors and assistant professors had regularly employed published conversation to present info to extension staff. It was also recorded that lesser professors participated in workshops, conferences, trainings, exhibitions, area visits, farmer-scientist interactions and outcomes demonstrations, compared to associate and assistant professor (Gupta and Chandragi, 2005). The small percent of professors, Associate Directors and other exploration scientists interaction with farmers is dependable for understanding gap. A right reward technique in SAU/ NARS requires to be incorporated to give because of credit score to professors / Associate & Asstt. Prof. for Extension improvements (wani, 2004).
A study was done in four districts of northern Karnataka (Dharwad, Belgaum, Gulbarga and Bellary), India, to ascertain the efficiency of scientists (n=102) in distinct linkage functions with extension staff. To measure the efficiency of the scientists, a scale was produced by adhering to a standardized process. Benefits showed that vast majority of the professors (85.71%), assistant professors (82.twenty five%) and associate professors (sixty nine.23%) belonged to medium efficiency group in linking with extension staff. Additionally, associate professors have been observed to be in-charge with most of the exploration initiatives. Associate and assistant professors typically participated in area times, demonstrations and other functions (Gupta and Chandargri, 2005).
We have also observed that extension supply technique in J&K is mainly by Assistant or Associate professor relatively than professors. This is really essential that participation of professors in underneath graduate educating and extension in negligible. The job of exploration is also decimal. A policy improve is consequently needed to stimulate exploration, extension and educating among the senior agricultural scientists. Probably exploration on Farmers area could be a risk now that, we have crop insurance in vogue. (Wani, 2007).
Discipline outcomes of Technologies use
This study was done in Belgaum district of North Karnataka, , India , in the course of the year 2004 to assess the adoption of output and article harvest know-how for Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) and to establish the problems encountered by farmers (n=a hundred and twenty) in adopting the know-how. Vast majority of the farmers cultivated tomato hybrids, planted in the course of June-July, followed seventy five-one hundred g per ha seed charge, adopted 60×40 cm spacing and applied 5-10 tonnes of farmyard manure per ha. Vast majority (86.sixty six%) of the respondents employed 5% neem seed kernel extract for fruit borer and fifty eight.33% farmers employed Bordeaux mixture for fruit rot. With regard to postharvest know-how, sixty six.67% of the respondents sorted manually, forty six.67% followed handbook grading and none of the respondents had taken up processing of Tomato. Absence of specialized understanding and assistance about enhanced cultivation practices and postharvest know-how, high fluctuation in current market value and high transportation price have been the big problems, faced by the farmers in adopting the output and postharvest know-how (Kumar et al, 2006)sixty four
Mass media and visual media assisted animal husbandry and linked functions by means of scientist /farmers interaction, North -24 pargnas of West Bengal (Roy et al, 2006). A study was done to ascertain the understanding stage of dairy farmers pertaining to chosen animal husbandry practices for successful dairy farming. The data have been collected by administering a questionnaire to one hundred dairy farmers from Nadia district, West Bengal, India . Benefits showed that vast majority of the dairy farmers had high understanding stage on synthetic insemination, medium understanding stage on deworming and other animal husbandry practices, and small understanding stage on feeding animals with inexperienced fodder. It is prompt that the outcomes of this study can be used in formulating, organizing and implementing transfer of know-how that encourages the use of scientific technique in dairy farming (Islam et al, 2006)
The farmers adopted considerably less of the suggested practices of fertilizer application, seed charge per hectare and spacing whilst, none of them employed any plant protection steps to management pests and disorders. It is prompt that the extension companies really should get aspect in the implementation of many extension functions and popularizing the re commended practices of wheat in wheat rising places so as to maximize wheat output and for that reason, the overall agricultural output ( Waman and Ahire, 2006).
The determinants in dairy extension technique perceived by Directors of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Sciences, Chief Veterinary Officers, Taking care of Directors, Typical Managers and Managers in dissemination of info have been studied. The study was done in 20-5 states of India. The overall numbers of determinant chosen for the study have been 7. Out of these the “facilitating suitable availability of credit score to assist the programme taken up for the rural inadequate” and resource and revenue technology of vulnerable portion of the rural population have been a lot demanded. Nonetheless, “Talent formation and talent upgrading initiatives to present self and wage work among the the rural poor’ and escalating output and productivity of milk and milk products’ have been least demanded in dairy shared finding out extension technique. (Suman & Ram, 2005).
A study was performed on social cash in accelerating the distribute of agricultural systems these as built-in pest administration (IPM). The study was performed in a village in Munoz, Nueva Ecija, Philippines, in response to the problem of gradual diffusion of agricultural systems. Each quantitative and qualitative approaches have been employed in investigating the method of sharing and finding out of IPM. Benefits exhibit that social cash in conditions of kin networks and spatial proximity these as located among the farm neighbours are important in the finding out method and therefore, diffusion of IPM among the Filipino farmers. Kin networks and farm place are critical considerations in snapling (Logan, 2004) individuals strategically for the prolonged year IPM farmer area universities (FFS). (Palis et al, 2005)
The evaluation of suggested water-administration systems was carried out just after their documentation from distinct companies doing the job in the area of water administration in two eastern India states viz. Orissa and West Bengal. The perception of 30 associates of the exploration technique pertaining to the feasibility of these systems elucidated that out of 86 documented suggested water –management systems , forty have been obtaining feasibility scores of four.. Eight systems with score of 3. and the rest of the 38 systems with a score between 3. and four. on a feasibility continuum range from one. (not possible) to 5. (really possible). Out of forty suggested systems( previously assessed as really possible by the exploration staff), extension staff have perceived sixteen and 10 systems as really suitable and possible, respectively. Whilst six and four systems have been located to be considerably less suitable and possible (Souvik et al, 2005). The gap in exploration extension perception want remedial steps by connection exploration to farmers fields or enabling KVK’s to have adoptive exploration in districts. Remodeling of extension – Investigation linkage is needed.
This study was done to ascertain the success of distinct conversation media for transfer of cotton output know-how inside of cotton growers (n=a hundred and twenty) chosen from four village of Hisar district, Haryana, India , in the course of 1999. The farmers have been supplied teaching on cotton output know-how by means of four chosen conversation media namely, lecture plus dialogue, printed substance plus dialogue, audio plus dialogue and visual plus dialogue. The study disclosed that farmers attained utmost understanding (eighteen.67%) when the enhanced cotton output know-how was communicated by means of visuals plus dialogue and attained least by means of lecture plus dialogue (9.47%). In the study, visuals plus dialogue was located most efficient, followed by printed substance plus dialogue, audio aids plus dialogue, and lecture plus dialogue educating approaches. (Kumar et al, 2005).
Farm Data Credibility
The study aims to ascertain the relative believability of resources of farm info as perceived by the televiewer and non-viewer farmers residing underneath the penetration range of Muzaffarpur Doordarshan Kendra of Bihar condition, India. A sample of a hundred and twenty televiewer and eighty non televiewer farmers have been randomly drawn from 8 villages underneath the very same viewing jurisdiction and data have been collected by means of a pre-tested interview routine. The conclusions counsel that demonstration, progressive farmers, agricultural scientists, tv and village stage staff have been acknowledged as the most credible resources of farm info among the televiwer farmers. Progressive farmers, demonstration, friends, family and agricultural scientists have been deemed as the credible resources of farm info among the non-viewer farming teams. The study further more disclosed that the viewers perceived tv as the fourth most credible source whilst non-viewers deemed it as the sixth most credible source of farm info. The implications of the outcomes are also mentioned in check out of an efficient conversation strategy for the transfer of know-how (Ansari and Singh, 2005).
A study was done to(a) study the individual, social, financial and psychological qualities of fig (Ficus carica) growers (b) establish the resources of info employed by the fig growers and (iii) acquire the tips of the respondents to conquer the problems. The data have been collected by interviewing two hundred fig growers in twenty villages in Pune District, Maharashtra, India, in the course of January 2005. Benefits showed that most of the fig growers are middle-aged and are educated upto the 10th quality. Most of them have medium- sized families with medium stage of working experience on fig cultivation. All the respondents prompt that they want more info pertaining to efficient and economical marketing and advertising and credit score technique. They also acknowledged their want for info on costs in the course of harvesting, subsidy for drip irrigation and use of small price know-how for processing figs and chilly storage (Khalache and Khaire, 2007) .
Farmers Education requires
This study was done to(i) study the qualities of paddy farmers (ii) assess the understanding stage of paddy farmers pertaining to built-in administration practices in paddy cultivation and (iii) check out the romantic relationship between qualities of paddy farmers and their understanding stage. Info have been collected from a hundred and twenty paddy farmers in Maharashtra, India. Benefits of the study indicated that the respondents have medium understanding stage pertaining to many built-in administration practices. Thus, the farmers, really should be designed knowledgeable of the availability and advantages of built-in administration practices by means of tv, radio, newspapers and extension literature. It is prompt that teaching programmes might be arranged for farmers pertaining to scientific use of fertilizer, plant protection by means of organic management steps and water administration (Ahire and Kiran, 2007). A detailed teaching reforms have been claimed (Wani, 2003).
A study was done to ascertain the styles of agricultural extension products and services suited for privatization as perceived by agricultural scientists (n=15) and officers (n=twenty) of the section of agriculture and horticulture of Andhra Pradesh, India. Vast majority of the agricultural scientists desired the privatization of technological products and services: Soil investigation, irrigation water investigation, supplying info on worth addition procedures/ output of items for export, provide of weedicides, transportation amenities, provision of credit score amenities from cooperative banking institutions, farmers’ affiliation, distribution of farm literature, and dairy products and services. Additionally, officers of the section of agriculture and horticulture also acknowledged the want for private products and services on the adhering to technological products and services: supplying info on development regulators plant protection steps on IPM provide of fertilizers, manures and pesticides provide of agricultural implements and other products transportation amenities and the carry out of area visits/excursions and dairy products and services (Kumar and Reddy 2006).