April 23, 2021

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Agriculture in India: Problems and Problems

AGRICULTURE IN INDIA: Problems AND Problems – Ramaiah Bheenaveni – Dept. of Sociology, – Osmania...

AGRICULTURE IN INDIA: Problems AND Problems
– Ramaiah Bheenaveni
– Dept. of Sociology,
– Osmania University,
– Hyderabad – 07.

“Agriculture is the spine of the Indian Economy”- claimed Mahatma Gandhi 5 a long time ago. Even today, as we enter the new millennium, the situation is however the same, with nearly the full overall economy staying sustained by agriculture, which is the mainstay of the villages. Not only the overall economy, but also each individual one particular of us appears up to agriculture for our sustenance way too.
Importance of Agriculture:
Whilst agriculture contributes only 21% of India’s GDP, its value in the country’s financial, social, and political material goes effectively further than this indicator. The rural regions are however home to some seventy two p.c of the India’s one.one billion individuals, a substantial selection of whom are lousy. Most of the rural lousy count on rain-fed agriculture and fragile forests for their livelihoods.
The sharp rise in foodgrain production for the duration of India’s Environmentally friendly Revolution of the nineteen seventies enabled the region to attain self-sufficiency in foodgrains and stave off the threat of famine. Agricultural intensification in the nineteen seventies to nineteen eighties saw an amplified desire for rural labor that elevated rural wages and, collectively with declining foodstuff prices, lowered rural poverty.
Sustained, despite the fact that considerably slower, agricultural growth in the nineties lowered rural poverty to 26.three p.c by 1999/00. Due to the fact then, nevertheless, the slowdown in agricultural growth has develop into a big cause for problem. India’s rice yields are one particular-third of China’s and about 50 percent of all those in Vietnam and Indonesia. With the exception of sugarcane, potato and tea, the same is genuine for most other agricultural commodities.
The Government of India spots significant precedence on lowering poverty by elevating agricultural productiveness. Even so, bold motion from policymakers will be required to change away from the current subsidy-based mostly routine that is no for a longer period sustainable, to construct a good basis for a hugely effective, internationally aggressive, and diversified agricultural sector.
Problems and Problems
It is below the challenge arises considering the implementation of the know-how at many stages in the Global neighborhood. The need to have of the hour is not software of the know-how but the adoption of acceptable know-how, which would suit the certain amount of the world neighborhood. In India, the farming techniques are way too haphazard and non-scientific and therefore need to have some forethought prior to applying any new know-how.
Applications of agricultural inputs at uniform costs throughout the subject without the need of because of regard to in-subject variants in soil fertility and crop conditions does not generate fascinating final results in conditions of crop generate. The administration of in-subject variability in soil fertility and crop conditions for improving the crop production and minimizing the environmental effects is the crux of precision farming.
Thus, the details on spatial variability in soil fertility standing and crop conditions is a pre-requisite for adoption of precision farming. Place know-how which includes world positioning system (GPS) and GIS retains excellent assure in deriving details on soil attributes and crop generate, and makes it possible for monitoring seasonally- variable soil and crop traits, specifically soil dampness, crop-phenology, growth, evapotranspiration, nutrient deficiency, crop condition, and weed and insect infestation, which, in change, aid in optimizing inputs and maximizing crop generate and earnings. Even though extensively adopted in formulated nations around the world, the adoption of precision farming in India is nevertheless to choose a company floor principally because of to its exclusive sample of land holdings, lousy infrastructure, absence of farmers’ inclination to choose hazard, socio-financial and demographic conditions.
Factors Contribution to Decline of Agriculture:
Gradual Down in Agricultural and Rural Non-Farm Expansion: The two the poorest as effectively as the far more prosperous ‘Green Revolution’ states of Punjab, Haryana, Andhra Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh have recently witnessed a gradual-down in agricultural growth and it in the long run guide for farmer’s suicide. Some of the variables hampering the revival of growth are:
• Weak composition of community expenditures: General public paying on agricultural subsidies is crowding out productiveness-enhancing investments this kind of as agricultural investigation and extension, as effectively as investments in rural infrastructure, and the health and fitness and training of the rural individuals. In 1999/2000, agricultural subsidies amounted to three p.c of GDP and have been more than 7 occasions the community investments in the sector.
• Above-regulation of domestic agricultural trade: Though financial and trade reforms in the nineties aided to enhance the incentive framework, more than-regulation of domestic trade has amplified expenditures, price tag dangers and uncertainty, undermining the sector’s competitiveness.
• Government interventions in labor, land, and credit rating markets: Far more rapid growth of the rural non-farm sector is constrained by govt interventions in component markets — labor, land, and credit rating — and in output markets, this kind of as the tiny-scale reservation of enterprises.
• Inadequate infrastructure and companies in rural regions. Infrastructure is also a substantial component in the system of improvement but region like our rural Bharat has not posses the infrastructure this kind of as streets, electricity, fertilizer and pesticides availability which prompted the vulnerable problems to the growth of agriculture.
Weak Framework for Sustainable Water Management and Irrigation:
 Inequitable allocation of drinking water: Lots of states absence the incentives, coverage, regulatory, and institutional framework for the productive, sustainable, and equitable allocation of drinking water.
 Deteriorating irrigation infrastructure: General public paying in irrigation is unfold more than quite a few uncompleted projects. In addition, current infrastructure has swiftly deteriorated as operations and servicing is offered lessen precedence.
Inadequate Accessibility to Land and Finance:
 Stringent land rules discourage rural investments: Though land distribution has develop into considerably less skewed, land coverage and rules to enhance protection of tenure (which includes constraints or bans on renting land or changing it to other utilizes) have had the unintended impact of lowering entry by the landless and discouraging rural investments.
Computerization of land information has introduced to mild institutional weaknesses: Condition govt initiatives to computerize land information have lowered transaction expenditures and amplified transparency, but also introduced to mild institutional weaknesses.
Rural lousy have very little entry to credit rating: Though India has a broad community of rural finance institutions, quite a few of the rural lousy continue to be excluded, because of to inefficiencies in the official finance institutions, the weak regulatory framework, significant transaction expenditures, and dangers connected with lending to agriculture.
Weak All-natural Means Management: Just one quarter of India’s populace is dependent on forests for at minimum element of their livelihoods.
A purely conservation method to forests is ineffective: Working experience in India reveals that a purely conservation method to purely natural assets administration does not operate effectively and does very little to lower poverty.
Weak useful resource rights for forest communities: The forest sector is also confronted with weak useful resource rights and financial incentives for communities, an inefficient legal framework and participatory administration, and lousy entry to markets.
Weak supply of simple companies in rural regions:
Minimal bureaucratic accountability and inefficient use of community money: Regardless of substantial expenditures in rural improvement, a hugely centralized paperwork with lower accountability and inefficient use of community money limit their effects on poverty. In 1992, India amended its Structure to build three tiers of democratically elected rural neighborhood governments bringing governance down to the villages. Even so, the transfer of authority, money, and functionaries to these neighborhood bodies is progressing bit by bit, in element because of to political vested interests. The lousy are not empowered to contribute to shaping community applications or to maintain neighborhood governments accountable.
Measures Needed Parts:
one. Enhancing agricultural productiveness, competitiveness, and rural growth
Enhancing productiveness: Developing a far more effective, internationally aggressive and diversified agricultural sector would need a change in community expenditures away from subsidies to productiveness enhancing investments. Second it will need eradicating the constraints on domestic non-public trade to enhance the financial commitment local climate and fulfill increasing market options. Third, the agricultural investigation and extension devices need to have to be strengthened to enhance entry to productiveness enhancing technologies. The numerous conditions throughout India suggest the value of regionally differentiated procedures, with a robust focus on the lagging states.
Bettering Water Useful resource and Irrigation/Drainage Management: Improve in multi-sectoral competitiveness for drinking water highlights the need to have to formulate drinking water policies and unbundle drinking water assets administration from irrigation provider supply. Other vital priorities involve: (i) modernizing Irrigation and Drainage Departments to combine the participation of farmers and other companies in irrigation administration (ii) improving cost recovery (iii) rationalizing community expenditures, with precedence to finishing techniques with the highest returns and (iv) allocating adequate assets for operations and servicing for the sustainability of investments.
Strengthening rural non-farm sector growth: Mounting incomes are fueling desire for increased-benefit fresh and processed agricultural solutions in domestic markets and globally, which open up new options for agricultural diversification to increased benefit solutions (e.g. horticulture, livestock), agro-processing and connected companies. The govt desires to change its purpose from immediate intervention and overregulation to building the enabling ecosystem for non-public sector participation and competitiveness for agribusiness and far more broadly, the rural non-farm sector growth. Bettering the rural financial commitment local climate contains eradicating trade controls, rationalizing labor rules and the tax routine (i.e. adoption of the benefit included tax system), and improving entry to credit rating and vital infrastructure (e.g. streets, electricity, ports, markets).
2. Bettering entry to property and sustainable purely natural useful resource use
Balancing poverty reduction and conservation priorities: Discovering win-win combinations for conservation and poverty reduction will be important to sustainable purely natural useful resource administration. This will entail addressing legal, coverage and institutional constraints to devolving useful resource rights, and transferring responsibilities to neighborhood communities.

Bettering entry to land: States can construct on the developing consensus to reform land coverage, notably land tenancy coverage and land administration system. States that do not have tenancy constraints can offer valuable classes in this regard. Above the for a longer period time period, a far more holistic method to land administration policies, rules and institutions is necessary to guarantee tenure protection, lower expenditures, and guarantee fairness and sustainability of the system.

Bettering entry to rural finance: It would need improving the effectiveness of regional rural banking companies and rural credit rating cooperatives by enhancing regulatory oversight, eradicating govt command and ownership, and strengthening the legal framework for personal loan recovery and the use of land as collateral. It would also entail building an enabling ecosystem for the improvement of micro-finance institutions in rural regions.

three. Strengthening institutions for the lousy and endorsing rural livelihood
Endorsing Local community-Based Rural Development: Condition Government initiatives in scaling up livelihood and neighborhood-driven improvement methods will be important to construct social cash in the poorest regions as effectively as to increase financial savings mobilization, endorse effective investments, earnings producing options and sustainable purely natural useful resource administration. Direct guidance to self-aid groups, village committees, user’s associations, financial savings and loans groups and many others can offer the preliminary ‘push’ to shift companies to increased amount and entry to new financial options. In addition, social mobilization and notably the empowerment of women’s groups, through amplified ability for collective motion will offer communities with greater “voice” and bargaining electric power in dealing with the non-public sector, markets and economical companies.
Strengthening Accountability for Services Delivery: As decentralization initiatives are pursued and neighborhood governments are offered far more prominence in the simple provider supply, the institution of accountability mechanisms becomes important. Regional governments’ ability to detect neighborhood priorities through participatory budgeting and organizing desires to be strengthened. This, in change, would enhance the rural financial commitment local climate, facilitating the involvement of the non-public sector, building employment options and linkages amongst farm and non-kind sectors

References:

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three. David Rindos (1984) : “The Origins of Agriculture: An Evolutionary Perspective”
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