April 19, 2021


Specialists in home design

Agricultural Productiveness Adjustments in India Under World wide Marketting State of affairs

Agricultural Productiveness gains by capacity making, eco-helpful farming and Extension Education Reforms By PROF. GHULAM...

Agricultural Productiveness gains by capacity making, eco-helpful farming and Extension Education Reforms


 DIRECTOR EXTENSION Education AND DIRECTOR SAMETI,SKUAST-K,SHALIMAR Write-up GPO 461 SRINAGAR-KASHMIR. Home website page.www.profgmwani.website page.tl. E-mail [email protected] [email protected] Phones 09419095342 09419409546


Agricultural Manufacturing has entered new era of aggressive-minimal-price tag globally oriented company. The price tag-benefit ratio determine the manner of Farming. World wide marketing and advertising wants some improvements at base amount. Farmers have to be price tag conscious and have to have new strategies of mixing different farming choice like Agriculture, Horticulture, Livestock husbandry and Floriculture routines. A new model for incorporating all these fields in an eco-helpful manner is talked over. Acceptable combined technologies in tune with pure means wanted at the second in India.. An agricultural mission for productive Source management ought to aim at bridging hole concerning present farm produce and potential Farm produce. Use of bio-technologies and bio-informatics for identification of economically practical cropping choices and combos can not be dominated out ,having said that soil and environmental preservation have to be stored in thoughts even though using biotech farming choices. We ought to discuss of Eco-conducive-germplasm-base as an alternative of superior successful – germplasm, un-competable to our pure means. All these and other facets of long run agricultural circumstance in India is talked over in these web pages. India with 1.09 billion persons and sixty% of them dependent on agriculture can not be leveled with United states who has merely339 million persons and only .seven of them dependent or agriculture. Therefore the past trend of aping United states OR EU versions of agricultural growth won’t help. We have to innovate new methods and implies conducive to our agrarian ailments and readily available useful resource to improve our food stuff creation for growing populace in long run. Some of the primary views of the writer posted as e-papers are reproduced listed here to suggest new progressive versions.  

          a) Alter of thoughts set We will have to have a change in the system of technologies dissemination therefore a reformation model for extension instruction in India is proposed in these web pages. Extra than 50% of our practising farmers are gals who are not exposed to technologies new or outdated, therefore a program of their capacity making and ability up-gradation shall be centered Agricultural and allied technologies tested and readily available in India have been the replications of business farming ventures of the west. I would dare to blame our coverage planners for this susceptible state de-affairs. They professed chemical farming when we had been earth leaders of organics In the past century when total earth confronted the unwell effects of chemical farming we are occupied in advocating our neglected choices which the good news is are still current in deep and uncommunicable pockects of our nation known as backward pockects. Our investigate have to have a change from individual crop or commodity farming investigate to combined farming approaches .My mohy model of 1992 is currently being quoted withmohy model of 1992 is currently being quoted with out reference fairly typically by individuals whose hollowness of progressive suggestions is dependable for our defective policies.

                b).Unfinished agenda wants,aims and aims


       1 . Acceptable combined technologies in tune with pure means.

       2. An agricultural mission for productive Source management, bridging hole concerning present farm produce and potential Farm produce.

      three. Use of bio-technologies and bio-informatics for identification of economically practical cropping choices and combos.


      We ought to discuss of Eco-conducive-germplasm-base as an alternative of superior successful – germplasm, un-competable with our pure means. Financial Farming which implies price tag efficient use of Soil Water means No air/drinking water pollution

 c). NUTRIENT RECYCLING Process Choices

      The chemical fertilizers are to be changed by use of agricultural squander materials, Plant residues, aquatic weeds, remaining out materials, post harvest wastes, environmentally friendly manure, wet period over developed vegetation, or ample vegetation, environmentally friendly weeds, metropolis drains, human excreta, animal manure, forest wastes, agriculture remaining out substances, bio-mass, bio-fertilizers, stall wastes & even pigeon beats and so on. Nutrient biking program has to be advanced very first by analysing soil position of each agro-climatic zone . The built-in nutrient management program, has to be advanced. A new, refined, Govt-agri coverage is wanted. New Institutional help program, exceptional marketing and advertising networks are to be proposed. For productive land use we have to wed standard wisdom with improved technologies, farmers coaching and financially rewarding conclude solutions. We ought to advocate: a). Use of details technologies to improve income from in general farming cropping, animal aquaculture and so on. b) Evaluation of readily available facts on processing, creation and its documentation for use in job preparing, coverage formulation is a standard necessity.

              A new delicate laboratory facility is envisioned for enter and output high quality evaluation. c) Agriculture of currently does not signify additional creation at surroundings price tag but productive and financial creation with Environmental safeguards. INTRODUCTION Our 65% work base is agriculture & its allied sectors like livestock We. Want in long run : ? Foods and surroundings protection ? Work generation by agrobased marketplace. ? Financial , balanced and hygienic food stuff with primary style. and flavours. We are in a period of cultural and financial transit. This transformation Method delivers, New livelihood choices, New creation & utilization program Transformed lifetime variations & cultural practices

            I do not know how lots of of us know about USDA’s national Arboretum of Washington DC A 444 acre arboretum now has dropped pesticide use by seventy five% throughout 1992-ninety six. They call it new land scope pest Administration (NL PM). It was simple place spraying i.e spray proper exactly where it is wanted, i.e on diseased twig or department or plant and only if it is wanted. This shift from blanket spraying to chosen sprays saved seventy five% of pesticide price tag other saving was by decreased labour price tag and eco-chance factors.

             We have to have risk-free equipments and labour wellness checking and assessment of facts. An additional location which wants focus is use of less harmful pesticides. We call them bio-rational pesticides. They lessen price tag by 12-32% and consist of Horticulture oils insecticidal soaps, insect expansion regulators and predators.

        We discuss of trainings for Information assessment, checking disaster, Administration of floods droughts. Use of distant sensing and World wide positioning program is wanted. We in building nations in long run will have Industrial enlargement, and additional financial protection..This will signify less persons currently being attracted to agriculture or in other terms agriculture getting to be less renumerative. We have to have improved versions, their swift propagation by biotechnological use. We may possibly have minimal choices not to use biotech agriculture or mend fences concerning standard, optional and modern biotechniques.

          This is exactly where we discuss now of molecular farming, using biotechnology for additional transgenic crops . animals, aquaculture and, business floriculture. New troubles in agricultural and other sciences in India are:

          1. Establish facts base for patent formulations

          2. We have to have substitute of top down setting up with gross root setting up.

          3 Extra farmer’s participation  with decreased dangers .

        4 Study in past, centered on improved seeds, irrigation, chemical use. We witnessed environmentally friendly revolution, liberty from starvation, but harmed surroundings. we have to glimpse for alternate choices for the execution of investigate.

        5. Extension instruction ,dissemination of details to farmer has to be the very first concern of the general public and personal institutions and planners. Birds eye viewers have to be changed with visionary professors and industry experts.

       6. Farmer. farming and farm organization shall be the 1st rating scientific persuit investing at the very least an equal volume on it as is shell out on wellness or nuclear institutions,.

                  Our coverage ought to be Independent and self conscious farmers, with data of once-a-year balances, gains and losses, dangers and advantages.

     Base LINE Problem

          Deliver self- reliant very pleased farmer educated & properly versed in Agri-organization

   Farmers have to have recognition on    

       Farming principles and global zoo-phytosanitation recommendations and polices.

      We have to have to halt WTO limits or choices until our farming and farmers are not entirely know-how pushed and economically resourceful to experience the world farming competitions.


 Four paradigms of Agricultural extension consists of Engineering transfer, prevalent given that colonial periods & later on Nationwide Agriculture Extension Job (NAEP), reshaped in 1970-eighty as Coaching and stop by program throughout Asia. It included top down strategy. Its function wants discussion. The second paradigm known as as Advisory operate is what is present program of extension, exactly where, govt businesses, NGO and specialized industries answer to farmers enquiries which we call advisory function. The 3rd paradigm consists of Human Source Improvement. This innovation assisted Europe and North The us. The Universities gave coaching to rural youth. It is these educated, educated youth which turned long run farmers in developed nations. What is acknowledged as outreach program of schools and universities is still unknown in our Agricultural Study program like Condition Agriculture Universities. A 50 % hearted endeavor as Agri-organization Agri-clinical is still to be backed with University, investigate, banking and financial help. Is it which can help us to improve productiveness in India or Asia wants thought? (Wani, 2008).

               Engineering adoption and Influence

                     The influence of Nationwide Agricultural Study Job (NARP) (1986-ninety two) unveiled that technologies generated had been few and adoption level was not superior, even then an believed monetary benefit of Rs.2000/ per hectare was observed. Minimal connection concerning technologies developed and adopted needs a combined farming technologies capsule as 65% of our farmer’sare little and marginal farmers. This wants a whole shift to remaining in our agricultural extension methodology. (Reddy 2001, wani, 2008 a b c). T & V programme initiated with central aid in state has aroused all round technological recognition amongst agricultural authorities. Its dialogue and technologies transfer from University (Experts) to authorities agricultural extension workers was just about whole revolution.

                  The (ZAREC) Zonal Agricultural advisory Study and Extension counseling was the very best plate kind to discuss major troubles impeding agricultural growth. The missionary publication of creation recommendations aids a whole lot in transfer of technologies. The presentation of creation recommendations in neighborhood language is beneficial in raising productiveness in lots of nations. (Wani, 2004) Brinjal creation technologies adoption in Parbani, Mahrastra was the outcome of social participation, chance management assurance, marketing and advertising orientation, details internet websites and interaction methods. (Dudhak et al 2003). Different limitation of transportation, extension workers had been the factors of inadequate productiveness gains in Malakhand agency of Pakistan. (Mohamad et al, 2003).

            The adoption of legume creation technologies beneath Jhodpur arid ailments was minimal. The problems as indicated by farmers had been little farm size. Smaller holder farmer was less fascinated to undertake these technologies. Non existence of market and pricing coverage, chance of failure, feeding practices, social taboo and deficiency of Write-up Harvest Engineering (PHT) had been recognized. (Yadev et al, 2003). Suitable steerage or details help was the main constraint in adoption of improved Wheat cultivation in Himachal Pradesh. It contributed to sixteen.eight% non-adoption level amongst farmers. Other contributory factors had been technological unawareness (thirteen.33%) sloppy land (eleven.31%), farm enter price tag (9.forty one%), non availability of irrigation (eight.29%) and deficiency of inputs (seven.ninety five%) (Puran chand et al, 2001).

                  Social Structure and Engineering adoption Routine caste farmers in Maharastra have minimal amount of rice technologies adoption. Among the 150 such farmers only 12.six% had superior adoption level (Mankar et al,2004). Adoption of creation recommendations of Cashew in Maharastra’s Sindhubrug district was fifty eight% (Bhairamkar et al, 2004). Motto of extension programmes ought to be achieve to unreached, educate to un-teached, be acknowledged to unknown (Ganesan et al, 2003) (Wani, 1998). Agricultural productiveness in Czch Republic greater when details and interaction in extension program was improved for little scale farmers (Slavik, 2003).

          A study carried out amongst one hundred twenty farmers in Karnool district, Andhra Pradesh, India, unveiled that instruction, social participation, scientific orientation, chance management, mass media exposure, financial and market orientation had been positively and significantly correlated with the extent of adoption of suggested hybrid jowar (sorghum) seed tactics by the farmers. The greater part of the farmers (forty three.33%) had a medium amount of the adoption of the suggested tactics. (Kumar et al, 2005). It is prompt that five groups of factors figure out the adoption of irrigation methods and are the keys to planning suitable, efficient and progressive irrigation extension programmes amongst horticulturalists.

                 The five groups of factors are : Soil style and topography crop high quality sowing time saving drinking water and crop produce (Kaine & Beswell, 2005). We in J&K beneath SREP Strategic Study extension program of Districts recognize deficiency of details on sowing time, seed level and fertilizer application in almost all the crops. Seed remedy recognition assisted farmers to combat paddy blast (Wani, 2006, 2007). Innovative Alter Methodologies for assessment of farming program, choices for growth & sustainable eco-helpful farm science technologies are the wants of the houhour. We do have issue-issue-experts, but the brokers for assessing the composite outcome of different self-control oriented technologies go over is but to be structured. This is just exactly where we ought to intervene and restructure the self-control, programmes and divisions of extension instruction in the nation. Infact a whole change from current gradual motion, minimal progressive, regular and disintegrated extension program has to be refined into analytic , managemental , social, economical, marketable program, so that the total technologies transfer could be evaluated in phrases of productiveness and monetory gains per hectare.

                Different cropping and livestock designs and combos have to have to be evaluated & monitored. The influence assessment of extensive range of Agricultural technologies transfer be it coaching, entrepreneurship or agri organization is wanted, both equally before and immediately after technologies application. The readily available investigate benefits have to pierce the farmers farming tactics. Non – adoption is the outcome of our minimal productiveness amounts per unit of land. Inspite of incredible produce gains the per unit profitability has not lifted the financial ailments of our farmers.

       Our farm economy still fluctuates concerning season’s, wet many years and amongst locations. Now for any common gains from technologies, it is important to know its influence and adoptability level. It is consequently required to establish new technologies immediately after considering socio-organizational preparations, neighborhood current soil, drinking water, human wants and means. The neighborhood capabilities have to have to be acknowledged and refinement is created to increase profitability. Our working experience beneath IVLP confirmed a web productiveness gains of 2 q/hac in rice creation by enhancing neighborhood village pushed plough. Related progressive suggestions neighborhood technologies with improved or unique just one gave superior benefits in growth of financially rewarding farming . (Wani, 2004,2003,

 Suggested References:

Badri-OA 2001. University of Rural Extension Education and Improvement, Ahfad University for Ladies, Omdurman, Sudan. 18:1, 35-50 twenty.

Balasubramanian and Thamizoli, 2003, Social differentiation in the horizontal transfer of know-how: a circumstance analyze from south India, J.of Agri.Edu.and Extn.2003, 9:2,fifty one-603.

 Bharali et al, 2004. Influences of extracellular calcium and iron on membrane sensitivity to bisulphite in the mosses.Jr. of Bryology, vol.26No.1 of March 2004, pp fifty three-fifty nine

Carrasco et al, 2003, Absorbing the shocks: the circumstance of food stuff protection, extension and the agricultural know-how and details program in Haryana, Cuba.Journal of Agri. Edu.Extn. 2003, 9:three,ninety three-1029.

Davis et al, 2004, Extending technologies amongst little-scale farmers in Meru, Kenya: components for good results in farmer groups.Jol.of Agri.Edu.and Extn.200410(2):fifty three-62.

Ganesan et al, 2003,Achieving the unreached: principles of extension instruction, Tamil Nadu Agri.University, Coimbatore -641 003, India. Achieving the unreached: principles of Extn.Edu. 2003:xii+387.

 Kaine and Beswell, 2005, An progressive strategy to irrigation extension in horticulture, Acta –Horticulture.2005 (672): 177-183.

 Khalache and Khaire, 2007, Social-ersonal and socio-financial properties of the fig growers and details resources utilised by them in fig cultivation technologies, International J. of Agri.Sci.20073(1):258-twenty.

Kibwana- OT, 2000. Bringing jointly neighborhood and outside know-how for innovation in land husbandry in Tanzania and Ethopia – a comparative circumstance analyze. Jr. of Agri. Edu. & Extn. seven:three, 133-1